"The cinema is the first apparatus which tries to show to us differences in time, transposed either in terms of space, but represented in values of time."
Jean Epstein Esprit de cinéma 1955
"The cinema, even more directly than painting, conveys a relief in time, a perspective in time: it expresses time itself as perspective or relief. This is why time essentially takes on the power to contract or dilate, as movement takes on the power to slow down or accelerate. [Jean] Epstein comes closest to the concept of the shot: it is a mobile section, that is, a temporal perspective or a modulation."
Gilles Deleuze Cinema 1: The movement-image 1983
Descending staircase and turning around Eadweard Muybridge 1884-85
"The photographer proceeds, via the intermediary of the lens, to a point where he literally takes a luminous imprint, a cast ... [But] the cinema realises the paradox of moulding itself on the time of the object and of taking the imprint of its duration as well."
André Bazin What is cinema?
"Now, aberrant movement calls into question the status of time as indirect representation or number of movement ... a direct presentation of time does not imply the halting of movement, but rather the promotion of aberrant movement. What makes this problem as much a cinematographic as a philosophical one is that the movement-image seems to be in itself a profoundly aberrant and abnormal movement. [Jean] Epstein was perhaps the first to focus theoretically on this point, which viewers in the cinema experienced practically ...".
Gilles Deleuze Cinema 2: The time-image 1985
La Tempestaire 1947 22min dir. Jean Epstein